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quarta-feira, 28 de fevereiro de 2007

MAN Marine diesel engines




Bonito nao é??


pois, sao os motores a gasolio MAN para veiculos aquaticos,

para saber mais:


Propulsion engines

6-cylinder in-line motors from 190 kW to 588 kW (258 mhp to 800 mhp)

8-, 10- und 12-cylinder V-motors from 365 kW to 1140 kW (496 mhp to 1550 mhp)

As powerful and reliable engines for high-speed luxury yachts, passenger and industrial ships, pilot and patrol boats, the highspeed MAN diesel engines prove just how good they are. They are compact, powerful and economical. For all that, they’re environmentally friendly and comply with the IMO exhaust-gas regulations. Upon request, they can also be delivered with the release certificate of renowned classification companies.
MAN’s marine diesel engines offer all the benefits of cost-effective large-scale series production. They are manufactured ready to install and optimally fitted for any type of usage and operating conditions. MAN can inspect and certify engine installation if desired as well as carry out thorough commissioning.
Auxiliary engines
Renowned manufacturers of marine gensets, emergency gensets and auxiliary / harbour gensets use MAN diesel engines in their products in the power range from approx. 100 kVA to 750 kVA.

Nova directiva euro 3

COMUNICAÇÃO DA COMISSÃO AO PARLAMENTO EUROPEU nos termos do n° 2, segundo parágrafo, do artigo 251° do Tratado CE respeitante à Posição comum adoptada pelo Conselho tendo em vista a adopção da Directiva do Parlamento Europeu e do Conselho que altera a Directiva 97/24/CE relativa a determinados elementos ou características dos veículos a motor de duas ou três rodas

2000/0136 (COD)

COMUNICAÇÃO DA COMISSÃO AO PARLAMENTO EUROPEU nos termos do n° 2, segundo parágrafo, do artigo 251° do Tratado CE respeitante à Posição comum adoptada pelo Conselho tendo em vista a adopção da Directiva do Parlamento Europeu e do Conselho que altera a Directiva 97/24/CE relativa a determinados elementos ou características dos veículos a motor de duas ou três rodas


1. Antecedentes

- Data de transmissão da proposta ao PE e ao Conselho (COM(2000) 314 final - 2000/0136 (COD)): 22.6.2000

- Data do parecer do Parlamento Europeu em primeira leitura: 14.2.2001

- Data de adopção da proposta alterada: 23.5.2001

- Data de adopção da posição comum: 13.7.2001

2. Objectivo da proposta da Comissão

Os requisitos relativos às emissões dos motociclos são regidos pela chamada "Multidirectiva" 97/24/CE de 17 de Junho de 1997. Esta directiva instituiu uma primeira fase de valores-limite (Euro 1), prevendo que os mesmos fossem progressivamente restringidos.

A presente proposta contém os seguintes elementos:

* Valores-limite reduzidos para as emissões dos veículos de duas ou três rodas, aplicáveis a partir de 2003 aos novos modelos de veículos, e de 2004 a todos os modelos de veículos (Euro 2), centrados na redução de hidrocarbonetos

* Valores não obrigatórios para efeitos de incentivos fiscais

* Previsão de uma nova fase (Euro 3) de limites para as emissões, baseada em novas análises e no desenvolvimento de um novo ciclo de ensaios, que reduza os óxidos de azoto, os hidrocarbonetos e, possivelmente, as partículas.

3. Comentários sobre a posição comum

Limites das emissões - fase 2003

A posição comum confirma em grande medida os valores-limite propostos pela Comissão para 2003, excepto quanto a um valor-limite ligeiramente mais restritivo para os hidrocarbonetos emitidos pelos motociclos acima dos 150cc (1 g/km em vez de 1,2 g/km). Isto coincide com as prioridades da proposta da Comissão e do programa AUTO-OIL II, que indicou as emissões de hidrocarbonetos, enquanto precursores de ozono, como prioridade principal nesta fase de valores-limite para os motociclos.

A posição comum altera a data de entrada em vigor obrigatória de 1 de Janeiro de 2004 para 1 de Julho de 2004 (artigo 2.º, n.º 3), dando assim alguma flexibilidade aos fabricantes na adaptação de todos os seus modelos de veículos às novas exigências, de acordo com o ponto de vista do Parlamento Europeu.

Também de acordo com as alterações do Parlamento Europeu, a posição comum inclui um calendário separado para a aplicação aos motociclos "trial". A posição comum inclui também os motociclos "enduro" neste calendário (artigo 2.º, n.º 4). Estas datas são 1 de Janeiro de 2004 para os novos modelos e 1 de Julho de 2005 para todos os modelos.

Incentivos fiscais

O Conselho concorda com a proposta da Comissão de introduzir "valores não obrigatórios" para que os Estados-Membros possam optar por promover tecnologias ambientais mais avançadas através da concessão de incentivos fiscais. Nos valores não obrigatórios e no método de ensaio a eles associado, o Conselho seguiu os limites do Euro 3 para os veículos de passageiros, actualmente em vigor.

Trabalhos futuros (artigo 4.º)

Na sua proposta, a Comissão anunciara que iria investigar a viabilidade técnica e económica de futuras reduções das emissões, para aplicar a partir de 2006. Esta fase basear-se-ia num novo ciclo de ensaios, possivelmente harmonizado a nível mundial, actualmente a ser desenvolvido através de uma acção coordenada a nível da UNECE (Comissão Económica para a Europa das Nações Unidas). O Conselho apoiou esta abordagem, mas foi mais longe ao exigir que a Comissão apresente uma proposta nesta matéria antes do final de 2002. Este prazo coincide com o prazo previsto pela Comissão, tal como consta da exposição de motivos.

O Conselho acrescentou alguns elementos ao artigo 4.º, que devem ser encarados como acções prioritárias nos trabalhos futuros. No fim de 2002, a Comissão deve apresentar propostas relativas a novas reduções das emissões das motorizadas, à medição de partículas e valores-limite associados, à medição das emissões de CO2 e aos requisitos de durabilidade. Outros elementos referidos no artigo 4.º relacionam-se com a conformidade, a inspecção e a manutenção dos veículos em circulação, os sistemas de diagnóstico a bordo e o controlo das emissões por evaporação. Assumindo esta posição, o Conselho acolhe em larga medida os pontos de vista do Parlamento Europeu, na medida em que estas questões foram igualmente levantadas nas alterações do Parlamento Europeu. No entanto, relativamente a alguns elementos, o calendário e as disposições pormenorizadas das alterações parlamentares diferem da posição comum do Conselho.

A posição comum relativa ao artigo 4.º é, sem dúvida, um programa muito ambicioso com um calendário muito apertado. Porém, os vários elementos estão de acordo com as prioridades já estabelecidas pela Comissão.

Dispositivos de desactivação e estratégias de controlo irracionais

De acordo com as alterações do Parlamento Europeu, o Conselho introduziu uma proibição quanto ao uso de dispositivos de desactivação e estratégias de controlo irracionais, bem como disposições sobre a informação a fornecer pelo fabricante para permitir que os serviços técnicos verifiquem os dispositivos de controlo de emissões.

4. Alterações do Parlamento Europeu em primeira leitura e parecer da Comissão

A 14 de Fevereiro, o Parlamento Europeu adoptou 25 alterações. Estas podem ser reunidas em 3 grupos:

4.1. Introdução de uma fase Euro 3 obrigatória (aplicável em 2006):

Alterações 3, 5, 10, 11, 23, 24 e 25.

Os valores-limite Euro 3 propostos limitam-se a fazer coincidir o ciclo de ensaios e os valores-limite para os grandes motociclos com os que se encontram actualmente em vigor para os veículos de passageiros. Na sua proposta, a Comissão anunciou que iria estudar a possibilidade, a nível técnico e económico, de aplicar em 2006 uma nova fase, cujos valores-limite serão determinados com base num ciclo de ensaios específico para os motociclos, bem adaptado à dinâmica dos modos de condução destes veículos.

Sendo assim, a Comissão rejeitou todas as alterações do Parlamento Europeu que introduziam uma fase Euro 3 obrigatória.

4.2. Alterações relativas a: durabilidade, dispositivos de desactivação, ensaio da conformidade dos veículos em circulação, CO2 e sistemas de diagnóstico a bordo (alterações 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20 e 21, parte 4)

O relatório refere uma série de modos para assegurar mais eficazmente o funcionamento correcto do equipamento de controlo das emissões durante a vida útil do veículo. A aplicação desses requisitos poderá ter implicações consideráveis que carecem de avaliação cuidadosa, tendo em conta a relação custo-eficácia, a viabilidade técnica e as consequências práticas da respectiva aplicação ao sector dos motociclos.

Assim, a Comissão acedeu, em princípio, a estudar algumas daquelas medidas mas rejeita as alterações que prejudiquem qualquer decisão final quanto à sua aplicação.

4.3. Alterações várias (alterações 1, 2, 4, 12, 18, 19, 21, 22 e 26)

O relatório propôs também alterações adicionais sobre várias questões. A Comissão concorda plenamente com algumas delas, ou seja:

- possibilidade de instituir incentivos financeiros para reequipar veículos mais antigos (alterações 4 e 12);

- limitação do impacto económico nos pequenos fabricantes ao estudar medidas futuras (alteração 18).

Outras alterações, relativas a trabalhos futuros, são aceitáveis em princípio ou em parte mas devem ser analisadas antes da elaboração de propostas definitivas:

Uma das alterações várias não é aceitável:

- adiar a data Euro 2 para "todos os modelos" de 1 de Janeiro de 2004 para 1 de Janeiro de 2005 (alteração 26, parte 1).

Por conseguinte, a Comissão aceitou:

- na totalidade, três alterações (números 4, 12 e 18);

- parcialmente, seis alterações (números 1, 14, 19, 20, 22 e 26, 2.ª parte);

- em princípio, cinco alterações (números 2, 7, 8, 16 e 21),

e rejeitou onze alterações (números 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 23, 24 e 25).

5. Conclusões

Em geral, as instituições concordam que é necessária uma nova fase de redução das emissões, aplicável a partir de 2006. Há também acordo quanto à necessidade de um ciclo de ensaios melhorado. No entanto, ao contrário do Parlamento Europeu, o Conselho apoiou a abordagem da Comissão no sentido de que o melhor método de ensaio deverá ser estabelecido, de preferência, com base no ciclo de ensaios que se encontra actualmente a ser desenvolvido a nível da UNECE, antes de tomar uma decisão referente aos valores-limite de 2006.

Com a revisão do artigo 4.º, o Conselho traçou um programa ambicioso para a Comissão, com um calendário apertado. A este respeito, o Conselho foi, em larga medida, ao encontro das expectativas do Parlamento Europeu. A Comissão concorda que as medidas que garantem um desempenho mais eficaz das emissões em circulação, incluindo os necessários sistemas de controlo, deverão ser consideradas acções prioritárias.

Assim sendo, a Comissão apoia, em geral, a posição comum do Conselho e convida as duas instituições a chegarem a acordo o mais rapidamente possível. A Comissão está pronta para dar o seu apoio neste processo.

Herbalife

Herbalife
Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.

Atenção: Este artigo possui passagens que não respeitam o Princípio da imparcialidade. Tenha cuidado ao ler as informações contidas nele. Existe alguma controvérsia quanto à forma de o tornar mais imparcial, e se sabe alguma coisa sobre o assunto deve evitar editar o artigo neste momento sem participar na conversa a decorrer na página de discussão.

A Herbalife é uma multinacional americana presente hoje em 64 países, que atua na indústria de nutrição humana, distribuindo seus produtos através de marketing multinível, onde cada elemento é um distribuidor independente. A empresa foi fundada em 1980 por Mark Hughes, o qual faleceu em 2000. Um de seus slogans é "Quer perder peso? Pergunte-me como".

Os principais líderes da Herbalife também são distribuidores, tal como o atual CEO, o executivo Michael O. Johnson, que atuou como presidente da Walt Disney Company por 17 anos.Índice [esconder]
1 História oficial
2 História extra-oficial
3 Controvérsias
4 Ligações externas


[editar]
História oficial

A empresa começou depois de uma tragédia pessoal de seu futuro fundador, nos seus 18 anos, quando viu sua mãe morrer por uma overdose de anfetaminas (remédios para emagrecer). Mark começou a pesquisar sobre formas de emagrecer sem que a saúde fosse prejudicada. Após participar de um simpósio sobre ervas chinesas, ele desenvolveu o seu primeiro produto, o pó nutricional, o qual começou a ser vendido em Fevereiro de 1980.

A empresa chegou ao Brasil em 1995, e atualmente conta com Eneida Bini (ex-executiva da Avon) como diretora-geral da filial no Brasil.

[editar]
História extra-oficial

A história oficial é em grande parte um mito criado por Mark Hughes como parte de seu discurso de vendas.

Sua mãe, Jo Ann Hughes, morreu em 1975 (quando Mark tinha 19 anos), por overdose de Darvon (propoxifeno, um analgésico opióide).

Em 1976, Mark começou a trabalhar vendendo Slender Now ("mais magro agora") dos Laboratórios Seyforth, uma empresa de marketing multi-nível. Quando a mesma fechou em 1979, ele passou a vender equipamento de ginástica e produtos para controle de peso para a Golden Youth, outra empresa de marketing direto. Quando esta outra empresa também fechou, ele decidiu abrir sua própria empresa para combinar a filosofia oriental de ervas medicinais com a filosofia ocidental de minerais e vitaminas.

Em fevereiro de 1980, em parceria com Richard Marconi (responsável pelo Slender Now), ele abriu a Herbalife, com grande sucesso.

Em março de 1985, o procurador-geral do estado da Califórnia acusou a empresa de fazer promessas falsas ou enganosas quanto aos produtos (em particular, quanto ao teor de cafeína, um estimulante), além de operar a empresa como um esquema de corrente (ou pirâmide). Em maio ele prestou depoimento a uma comissão de senadores. O caso estadual foi fechado após a empresa pagar US$850.000 e retirar dois produtos do mercado. A investigação federal não resultou em uma acusação.

[editar]
Controvérsias

Distribuidores independentes da Herbalife questionam a rentabilidade deste tipo de negócio, alegando serem incentivados a manter grandes estoques, mesmo quando não conseguem vendê-los, embora essa não seja uma obrigação contratual. Há depoimentos de que distribuidores independentes ganham até cem mil reais por mês. A maioria dos distribuidores independentes, no entanto, encontra-se incapaz de atingir suas metas de venda.

Além disso nutricionistas contestam a eficácia dos produtos de emagrecimento. No final de 2005, a associação Pro Teste testou seis marcas de produtos nutricionais, incluindo o da Herbalife, concluindo que o mesmo não satisfaz as necessidades nutricionais do organismo [1].

A empresa se defende lembrando que o produto é aprovado pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento e pelo Ministério da Saúde no Brasil e de outras 61 nações. A equipe medica e científica da Herbalife inclui um laureado com o prémio Nobel da Medicina, Prof. Louis Ignarro.

Critica-se também o sistema de distribuidores independentes por funcionar como um esquema de matriz (semelhante ao esquema de pirâmide, porém com a comercialização de produtos), pois há a necessidade de progressão geométrica no número de distribuidores subordinados para que o distribuidor do topo da pirâmide alcance faturamentos de centenas de milhares de dólares, modelo de negócios insustentável dada a natureza finita da população consumidora.

Frase feita: Freud

freud: "A unica aberração sexual é a abstinência!", bem la foi o freud que disse e quem somos nós para questiona quem estudou o assunto :D

N-Trance - Electronic Pleasure



pois eu seu, tantos videos seguidos, mas curti a musica

Video - from paris to berlin



From Paris to Berlin,
and every disco I get in,
my heart is pumping for love,
pumping for love,
'Cause when I'm thinking of you,
and all the things we could do,
my heart is pumping for love,
you left me longing for you

From Paris to Berlin,
and every disco I get in,
my heart is pumping for love,
pumping for love,
'Cause when I'm thinking of you,
And all the things we could do,
my heart is pumping for love

Patience is a game,
and every night I say your name,
Hoping that you'll answer
'cause I'm going insane.
It's quite along time ago ,
You brought me out of control,
Hungry for you love
and like I know what that might be

From Paris to Berlin,
and every disco I get in,
my heart is pumping for love,
pumping for love,
'Cause when I'm thinking of you,
And all the things we could do,
my heart is pumping for love
you left me longing for you
you left me longing for you
you left me longing for you
you left me longing for you

Teasing was the thing
and now I just can't let it go
maiden you were something no-one else needs to know
I quess I'm thinking of you,
like I would know what to do
when I found you, but I don't
have got no clue

From Paris to Berlin,
and every disco I get in,
my heart is pumping for love,
pumping for love.
'Cause when I'm thinking of you,
And all the things we could do,
my heart is pumping for love,
you left me longing for you,
you left me longing for you,
you left me longing for you,
you left me longing for you

who-hou-u
who-hou-u
who-hou-u
who-hou-u
who-hou-u
who-hou-u
who-hou-u

From Paris to Berlin,
and every disco I get in,
my heart is pumping for love,
bounding for love,
'Cause when I'm thinking of you,
And all the things we could do,
my heart is pumping for love,
you left me longing for you

From Paris to Berlin,
and every disco I get in,
my heart is pumping for love,
pumping for love,
'Cause when I'm thinking of you,
And all the things we could do,
my heart is pumping for love,
you left me longing for you,
you left me longing for you,
you left me longing for you,
you left me longing for you,
you left me longing for you

Tesourinhos deprimentes - Luis arriaga

terça-feira, 27 de fevereiro de 2007

Western Electric co

Western Electric
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Company Masthead Logo

Logo until circa 1969, also current logo on company web site

Logo 1969-1983

Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was an American electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995. It was the scene of a number of technological innovations and also some seminal developments in industrial management. It also served as the purchasing agent for the member companies of the Bell System.Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Development Of A Monopoly
3 Technological innovations
4 Management innovations
5 The end of Western Electric
6 Legacy
7 References
8 See also
9 External links


[edit]
History

In 1856, George Shawk purchased an electrical engineering business in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1869, he became partners with Enos N. Barton and, later the same year, sold his share to inventor Elisha Gray. In 1872 Barton and Gray moved the business to Clinton Street, Chicago, Illinois and incorporated it as the Western Electric Manufacturing Company. They manufactured a variety of electrical products including typewriters, alarms and lighting and had a close relationship with the telegraph company Western Union to whom they supplied relays and other equipment.

In 1875, Gray sold his interests to Western Union, including the caveat that he had filed against Alexander Graham Bell's patent application for the telephone. The ensuing legal battle over patent rights, between Western Union and the Bell Telephone Company, ended in 1879 with the former company withdrawing from the telephone market and the latter acquiring Western Electric in 1881.

Western Electric Company was the first company to join in a Japanese joint venture with foreign capital. It invested in Nippon Electric Company, Ltd. in 1899. Western Electric held 54% of NEC at the time. Their representative in Japan was Walter Tenney Carleton.

Despite the existence of 1300 Independent telephone companies, the Bell System, popularly known as Ma Bell, had a monopoly on long distance service from 1881 until nearly the time of its break-up in 1984, and monopolies in local service for most regions during that same period. AT&T secured all urban areas in the early 20th century. The independent companies were left to serve less-profitable outlying areas and vast stretches of rural America.

The bulk of AT&T revenue came from the Bell System — regional Bell operating companies (RBOCs), such as The New York Telephone Co., The Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Co. and Southwestern Bell Telephone Co. Other divisions of AT&T and parts of the Bell System included Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. (Bell Labs), AT&T Long Lines and Western Electric, the manufacturing arm.

[edit]
Development Of A Monopoly

All telephones in areas where AT&T subsidiaries provided local service, all components of the public switched telephone network (PSTN), and all devices connected to the network were made by Western Electric and no other devices were allowed to be connected to AT&T's network. To enforce their monopoly, AT&T and Bell System companies employed small armies of inspectors to check household line voltage levels to determine if non-leased phones were in use by consumers.

AT&T and the Bell System used its leasing arrangements for telephones and telephone equipment made by its subsidiary, Western Electric to increase its control over telephone manufacturing in the United States and Canada. Western Electric-made phones were owned not by individual customers, but by local Bell System telephone companies - all of which were in turn owned by AT&T, which also owned Western Electric itself. Instead, each phone was leased from AT&T on a monthly basis by customers, who generally paid for their phone and its connection many times over in cumulative lease fees. This monopoly made millions of extra dollars for AT&T and Western Electric, which had the secondary effect of greatly limiting phone choices and styles. Many phones made by Western Electric carried the following disclaimer permanently molded into their housings: "BELL SYSTEM PROPERTY--NOT FOR SALE." Telephones also labeled with a sticker marking the Bell Operating Company that owned the telephone. To increase revenues, the Bell System sometimes remodelled older-design returned phones with new housings, then leased them for use in new installations. The longevity of Western Electric phone models and the limited number of new designs was a direct result of AT&T and Bell System control of new phone sales in a monopolistic system.

AT&T and the Bell System also strictly enforced policies against buying and using phones by other manufacturers. A customer who insisted on using a phone not supplied by the Bell System had to first transfer the phone to the local Bell monopoly, who leased the purchased phone back to the customer for a monthly charge plus a 're-wiring' fee. In the 1980s, after some consumers began buying phones from other manufacturers anyway, AT&T changed its policy for its Design Line telephone series by selling customers the phone's housing, retaining ownership of the mechanical components - which still required paying AT&T a monthly leasing fee.

Until 1983, Western Electric telephones and/or their inner mechanical components continued to be leased by subscribers and never sold, and so had to be repaired at no charge if they failed. This led Western Electric to pursue extreme reliability and durability in design in hopes of minimizing service calls. In particular, the work of Walter A. Shewhart, who developed new techniques for statistical quality control in the 1920s, helped lead to the legendary quality of manufacture of Western Electric telephones. In 1983, Western Electric telephones began being sold to the public through the newly created American Bell subsidiary of AT&T, under the American Bell brand name. Prior to Judge Greene prohibiting AT&T from using the Bell name after January 1, 1984 the plan was to market products and services under the American Bell name, accompanied by the now familiar AT&T globe logo.

AT&T's only serious competitor in providing phone service was General Telephone and Electronics (GTE), which operated its own manufacturing arm, Automatic Electric.

In 1905 AT&T began construction of the Hawthorne Works on the outskirts of Chicago and which, by 1914 had absorbed all manufacturing work from Clinton Street and Western Electric's other plant in New York.

In addition to being a supplier for AT&T, Western Electric also played a major role in the development and production of professional sound recording and reproducing equipment, notably the Vitaphone system which brought sound to the movies, the Westrex optical sound that succeeded it, and the Westrex cutter and system for recording stereophonic sound in a single-groove gramophone record that was compatible with monophonic equipment.

[edit]
Technological innovations

In 1928, Western Electric issued the first telephone with a single handset, having both the transmitter and receiver placed thereon (previous telephones had been of the "candlestick" type). This telephone was known as the "102" phone, and had a round base; it was succeeded in 1930 by the "202" phone, which was identical except for the shape of the base, which was oval.

The next significant upgrade came in 1937 with the introduction of the "302" phone. Designed by the noted industrial designer Henry Dreyfuss, this telephone included the ringer within its rectangular housing; previous models (including the candlestick) had required a separate "bell box." The 302 was followed by the "500" phone; initially released in 1949 and continually updated over time, reflecting new materials and manufacturing processes, such as quieter and smoother dial gearing and a printed circuit board in the "network" (the phone's circuit module). It was discontinued in 1986, in favor of a Touch-Tone version that also electronically emulated a rotary dial, the Western Electric Model 500 Phone, which would become the most extensively-produced telephone model in the industry's history.

Later innovations included the Princess telephones of the 1950s and Trimline telephones of the 1960s, and the development of touch-tone dialing as a replacement for rotary dialing.

In 1929 they were also a big player in early cinema sound systems. They created the Western Electric Universal Base, a device by which early silent cinema projectors could be adapted to screen sound films. They also designed a wide audio range horn speaker for cinemas. This was estimated to be nearly 50% efficient thus allowing a cinema to be filled with sound from a 3 watt amplifier. This was an important breakthrough in 1929 because high powered audio valves were not generally available then.

[edit]
Management innovations
Western Electric were pioneers of the scientific management of Frederick Winslow Taylor.
Walter A. Shewhart developed the control chart at the Hawthorne Works in 1924.
Western Electric was the location of the Hawthorne experiments in industrial productivity from 1924 to 1936.

[edit]
The end of Western Electric
See also: AT&T Technologies

On January 1, 1984, Western Electric Co. was assumed under the corporate charter of the new AT&T Technologies, Inc. Western Electric was then split up into several divisions, each focusing on a particular type of customer (e.g. AT&T Technology Systems, AT&T Network Systems). Telephones made by Western Electric prior to the breakup continued to be manufactured and continued to be marked "Western Electric", with the Bell logo absent, or "hidden" by metal filler inside of all telephone housings and most components, including new electronic integrated circuits with the famous "WE" initials.

Cost-cutting measures resulted in the consumer telephones, including the Trimline being redesigned and "modernized" in 1985, as well as more plastic being used in place of metal on the 500 & 2500 series phones, as well as the Princess. In 1986, the Indianapolis Works telephone plant closed, and US production of AT&T single line home phones ended. Business telephones and systems continued production in the Shreveport Works plant until 2001. Home telephones were redesigned an. production was moved overseas to Hong Kong, Singapore, and Bangkok. Western Electric no longer marked housings of telephones with "WE", but continued to mark the modular plugs of telephone cords with "WE".

Western Electric came to a total end in 1995 when AT&T changed the name of AT&T Technologies to Lucent Technologies, in preparation for its spinoff. All modular telephone plugs were now marked with "HHE" enclosed in an oval. Lucent would become independent in 1996, and sold/spun off more assets into Advanced American Telephones, Agere Systems, Avaya, and Consumer Phone Services. Lucent itself merged with Alcatel, forming Alcatel-Lucent. Western Electric's Structured Cabling unit, once known as AT&T Network Systems or SYSTIMAX, was spun off from Avaya and is now part of CommScope.

The assets once part of one Western Electric Co. now are in the hands of more than five companies.

[edit]
Legacy

Since the demise of Western Electric, telephones and telephone equipment have been made by numerous manufacturers. As a result of increased competition, modern telephones are now made in Asia using less expensive components. Since few people keep a phone more than a few years, today's models are often viewed as disposable commodities, as compared to long-lived Western Electric models.

Some people never purchased telephones after the AT&T breakup and continue to lease their existing Western Electric models from AT&T Consumer Lease Services. Such people have paid for their telephones ten or more times over, but the phones are perceived by some users to be superior to telephones commonly made today in aspects of durability and sound quality. Today many of these Western Electric telephones have become collector's items, renowned for their reliability.

Videos da dupla asiatica maravilha

QUEM SE LEMBRA DELES?




Outro da dupla maravilha:




The last one:

Instalação da Agência Europeia de Segurança Marítima em Portugal

Instalação da Agência Europeia de Segurança Marítima em Portugal

2005-04-26

Ministério da Defesa Nacional

Instalação da Agência Europeia de Segurança Marítima em Portugal

O Secretário de Estado da Defesa Nacional e dos Assuntos do Mar, Manuel Lobo Antunes, encontrou-se, no dia 21 de Abril, com o Director Executivo da Agência Europeia de Segurança Marítima (AESM), Sr. Williem de Ruitter, com o objectivo de acelerar o processo de instalação desta agência em Portugal, o que se espera agora possa vir a ocorrer, numa primeira fase, até ao final do corrente ano.

A decisão de sedear a AESM em Lisboa foi tomada pelo Conselho Europeu em 2003.

A localização desta agência no nosso país conferirá a Portugal uma visibilidade acrescida aos assuntos do mar, permitindo-lhe desde modo dar cumprimento ao programa do governo na promoção das acções que levem ao aumento da segurança marítima.

Instalação da Agência Europeia de Segurança Marítima em Portugal

Instalação da Agência Europeia de Segurança Marítima em Portugal

2005-04-26

Ministério da Defesa Nacional

Instalação da Agência Europeia de Segurança Marítima em Portugal

O Secretário de Estado da Defesa Nacional e dos Assuntos do Mar, Manuel Lobo Antunes, encontrou-se, no dia 21 de Abril, com o Director Executivo da Agência Europeia de Segurança Marítima (AESM), Sr. Williem de Ruitter, com o objectivo de acelerar o processo de instalação desta agência em Portugal, o que se espera agora possa vir a ocorrer, numa primeira fase, até ao final do corrente ano.

A decisão de sedear a AESM em Lisboa foi tomada pelo Conselho Europeu em 2003.

A localização desta agência no nosso país conferirá a Portugal uma visibilidade acrescida aos assuntos do mar, permitindo-lhe desde modo dar cumprimento ao programa do governo na promoção das acções que levem ao aumento da segurança marítima.

sexta-feira, 23 de fevereiro de 2007

Video ninja

Trailer do Saw 4

Placebo - Twenty Years



lyric:

There are twenty years to go
And twenty ways to know
Who'll wear, who'll wear the hat

There are twenty years to go
The best of all I hope
Enjoy the ride
The medicine show

Thems the breaks
For we designer fakes
We need to concentrate on more than meets the eye

There are twenty years to go
The faithful and the low
The best of starts, the broken heart, the stone

There are twenty years to go
The punch drunk and the blow
The worst of starts, the mercy part, the phone

And thems the breaks
For we designer fakes
We need to concentrate on more than meets the eye

Thems the breaks
For we designer fakes
But it's you i take, cause you're the truth, not I

There are twenty years to go
A golden age I know
But all will pass will end too fast you know

There are twenty years to go
And many friends I hope
Though some may hold the rose
Some hold the rope

That's the end - and that's the start of it
That's the whole - and that's the part of it
That's the high - and that's the heart of it
That's the long - and that's the short of it
That's the best - and that's the test in it
That's the doubt - the doubt, the trust in it
That's the sight - and that's the sound of it
That's the gift - and that's the trick in it

You're the truth, not I, you're the truth, not I
You're the truth, not I, you're the truth, not I

You're the truth, not I, you're the truth, not I
You're the truth, not I, You're the truth, not I.

Sparta & Athens: the Peloponnesian War

Athens and Sparta were two rival city-states, but at one time they had been united to protect the Greek states from a series of invasions by Persia. There were three major battles against the Persians: the Athenians stopped the Persian king Darius’s invasion of the Greek mainland at the battle of Marathon in 490 BCE. Under their new king Xerxes, the Persians regrouped and invaded Greece again, occupying more than half the country before being defeated by a coalition of 31 city-states, fighting together as Greeks to defend their homeland. Led by Athens and Sparta, the Greeks defeated the Persians at the battle of Salamis in 480 and at Plataea in 479 BCE.
The Spartans did not depend upon slaves from other territories for their labor force. Instead, they created what Sue Blundell calls a “serf class” from the native populations they had conquered. These serf-like peoples, known as helots, resented their suppression and presented a constant threat of rebellion against Sparta, which met this danger early on (in the 7th century BCE) by turning their citizens into a highly trained, efficient army. A male citizen’s life was spent in learning and practicing the military arts: “All Spartan citizens were full-time professional soldiers,” writes Blundell. “They were trained for this role from boyhood, and up to the age of thirty they lived continuously in barracks. After that, they could set up their own domestic establishments, but for the rest of their lives they ate every night in a common mess.” As a result of a lifetime of training, the Spartans were famed for their military abilities. The Spartans and their alliance, the Peloponnesian League, were a strong military force and dominated the southern region of Greece.
Unlike the Spartans, who were to a great degree self-sufficient and did not have business dealings with others, the city-state of Athens became wealthy through trade with others, tributes from states that looked to Athens’s navy for protection, and a large slave-based economy. There were about 40,000 citizens in Attica (in the early 400s BCE) and 100,000 slaves. Athens was wealthy, many of its citizens had a relatively large amount of leisure, and they enjoyed contact with the outside world. The city produced a remarkable series of writers, thinkers, philosophers, and politicians; they invented theatre, created democracy, and produced great art, architecture, and literature.
To protect its trade routes over the water, Athens created a strong navy, one that, over time, dominated the sea. Athens and its allies, known as the Delian League, came into conflict with the Spartans and the Peloponnesian league, and in 431 BCE war broke out between the two cities—a war based on trade routes, rivalries, and tributes paid by smaller dependent states.
This conflict, the Peloponnesian War, essentially was a 28-year period of on-again off-again civil war among Greek city-states. (A city-state was the city, such as Athens, and the surrounding country under its influence and protection; Athens and its surrounding area, known as Attica, was about the size of Rhode Island). Sparta had a clear military advantage on land, but the Athenian navy far surpassed Sparta’s capabilities at sea; neither side was able to seize and maintain the upper hand. Both sides experienced major victories and crushing defeats, and the war was frequently interrupted by periods of negotiated peace. The war ended in 404 BCE with the defeat of Athens and its democracy.

quinta-feira, 22 de fevereiro de 2007

Como Expandir o Vista de 30 Dias Para 120 Dias....

Como Expandir o Vista de 30 Dias Para 120 Dias....


Muito se tem falado ultimamente sobre o novo sistema operativo da Microsoft, desde os supostos crack's às noticias de actualizações, todo o mundo fala no Windows Vista.

Contudo, e porque a CDRWXP gosta de dar sempre a conhecer as últimas novidades, existe uma forma - legal - de conseguir expandir os 30 dias iniciais até 120 dias. O método é bastante simples sendo que deverá ser utilizado com a devida conta-peso-e-medida para conseguir de facto expandir para os 4 meses de utilização completa.




Em primeiro lugar deverá estar "logado" como Administrador de sistema, sendo que de seguida deverá executar a consola de comandos (Tecla Win+R) e escrever slmgr -rearm.

O comando rearm, e como já dissemos pode ser utilizador até três vezes, o que faz é "reiniciar" a contagem inicial de forma a dar novamente os 30 dias iniciais. E como só pode ser utilizado três vezes é aconselhável que seja executado apenas quando faltar um dia para o final de cada período.

Como já dissemos este método é completamente legal, sendo que foi publicado pela própria Microsoft.

quarta-feira, 21 de fevereiro de 2007

Foruns mega-games OMG clap clap

http://forums.megagames.com/forums/showthread.php?t=46642


ahahahhha
va alguem perceber este mundo

patch for The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II (1.03.)

Description
This is the retail 1.03 patch for The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II. Fixes included with this patch are listed below.

=============================================================
The Lord of the Rings(tm), The Battle for Middle-earth(tm) II
Readme File
=============================================================

Version 1.03 - April, 2006

Important Note
--------------------
Certain firewall and antivirus applications will block the following IRC ports: 6667-6669. These are required for successful connectivity with the Gamespy Online service. Please ensure that these ports are not being blocked by these applications to ensure successful online connectivity.

Crashes and Desyncs
------------------------------
- Fixed Crash when hosting an 8 player MP game with a min spec RAM machine
- Fixed Crash associated with Gloin's Slam ability
- Fixed Crash associated with waiting in the online lobby
- Fixed Crash when using team chat
- Fixed Desync with AI casting Dwarven Riches
- Fixed Desync that occurs in War of the Ring when a human player is defeated in his home territory on the same turn as an ally defeats an AI player in their home territory
- Fixed potential Desync with users being able to edit CAH .inis

Maps
-------
The following new maps have been added to MP / Skirmish:
- Evendim
- Fords of Isen II
- Tournament Hills
- Weather Hills
- Udun

- Grey Havens - Garrison-able tower now appears for all players
- Mirkwood - Top center starting position has had mountains removed to make it more balanced
- Minas Morgul - Fixed bug where Drogoth could not use his incinerate ability in pathable areas

Skirmish
------------
- Elven AI will now cast Enshrouding Mist and Farsight
- AI controlled Dwarven heroes now use all of their special abilities
- AI controlled Dwarves will now use the Citadel spell
- AI controlled Eowyn will now use her special abilities

Create A Hero
-------------------
- Other CAHs will no longer taunt stealthed Archer CAHs
- Fell Beasts will no longer attacked disguised CAHs
- Dwarf CAH Sapper ability range increased
- Mousing over a disguised CAH no longer reveals the player's name
- Recommended Attributes will now reset correctly
- Elendil ability no longer works on Mumakil
- Fixed exploit where units summoned using Call Reinforcements would not disappear if they were healed
- Fixed bug with Elven Archer CAH not attacking certain targets

War of the Ring
---------------------
- Games can now be sorted using the different column headers
- Settings for custom rules are now remembered when creating a new game
- You can now kick an AI opponent out of a game in the lobby
- Experience gained for armies under the effect of a Leadership bonus is now factored correctly
- During the tactical phase, you can no longer mouse over enemy scaffolding to see what they are building
- Fixed enemy start position when enemy is attacking from Rohan to Dead Marshes
- While one player is waiting for another player to accept a save, all timers will stop
- Client can now see a list of Save Games that have been saved by the host
- AI will no longer build a fortress on phase 1 of the skirmish. This will make them more effective against the player

Multiplayer
--------------
- Ladder bug fix: If players begin a Quick Match game and one of the players happens to disconnect during loading, the match will be counted as null and neither player's record will be impacted. However, the player that does not disconnect will still see the "Victorious" splash screen after the disconnect window. Please be aware this is a UI inconsistency, and that player will not actually receive a Win on their record for this match.

- Fixed a bug where players were able to place a building and have it instantly appear as fully built, at no cost. All buildings should now build normally, with appropriate costs.

General
----------
- Shadow maps have been improved on Ultra-High setting
- The WItchking is now counted as part of the Hero Lost stat
- Drogoth is now counted as part of the Heroes Defeated stat
- Fixed progression blocker in Advanced Tutorial where player could become stuck if Earthquake was not cast in the correct spot
- In the MP lobby, typing a message in the "Everyone" room will now send a message to everyone
- When you have your chat tab open, you will no longer hear a "ping" anytime someone sends a new message
- Load screens for MP / Skirmish games now show the start position of the player and his teammates

Balance
-----------
- All statue and well build costs normalized to 300
- All statue and well build times normalized to 45 seconds
- Men and Dwarf statue health normalized to 1500
- Fortress defenses (boiling oil/magma/etc ) damage increased from 200 to 600
- Fortress artillery expansions no longer override a player-issued bombard command
- Fortresses now take damage if attacked while they are under construction
- Wall segment cost has been reduced from 100 to 50
- Canceling a wall segment now refunds the cost of upgrades that are under construction
- All Farms / Mineshafts / Mallorn Trees / Forge Works normalized to health 2000, experience levels reached at 1500/3000, and level resource multipliers 1.25/1.5
- Fog of War reveal now matches position of all units in porcupine formation
- All Archer Bombard buttons on the Palantir have been moved to the last slot. You can now group select Fighters and Archers and give them their upgrades at the same time.
- Harvest Resource ability now works for all selected laborers
- Selecting Summoned Dunedain Allies and pressing E will now also select all Dunedain Rangers built from the Inn
- Units can no longer use unit specific abilities when stunned by Cloud Break
- Fixed bug where units produced from an Inn would become invincible and non-selectable if they were built at the same time an enemy captured the Inn
- Fixed bug where archers were not shifting from bombard to normal attack correctly
- The Summoned Dragon's Reposition ability has been assigned the hotkey "R"
- The Troll's Pick up Goblin ability has been assigned to the hotkey "P"
- Fixed bug where summoned units would stay around indefinitely if they were healed
- Fixed exploit with Sauron's Terrible Fury timer
- Fixed bug where the number that appears when selling off a building was not accurate
- Siege Unit armor against ranged attacks increased; damage taken from ranged heroes reduced from 200% to 5%, damage taken from pierce damage reduced from 25% to 5%

Dwarves
------------
- Gloin cost raised to 2000, respawn cost raised to 1500, damage reduced to 300, Shake Foundation reload time increased from 60 to 180
- Gloin's Shake Foundation now does 50% less damage to fortresses
- Gloin now paths through infantry when targeting special abilities (e.g. slam)
- Gloin's Slam ability now works against the Mordor fortress
- Fixed responsiveness bug with Gloin's Slam ability
- Dwarven Tower health increased to 3000; build time set to 60 seconds
- Battlewagon Pike Upgrade damage reduced from 1000 to 50
- Battlewagon ranged passengers can now fire while battlewagon is moving
- Battlewagon Hearth upgrade will now respawn fallen horde members
- Phalanx units that appear as part of Dain's Summon Royal Guard ability can now be placed in porcupine formation
- Dwarves can now garrison damaged Citadel
- Delay added to Dwarven Hearth's auto-heal timer
- Rebuild spell now works on Dwarven Hearth
- Dwarven Mighty Catapult can now be cast on water

Elves
-------
- Elven Barracks build time increased from 15 seconds to 30 seconds.
- Elven Tower health reduced to 1500; build time increased to 60 seconds
- Elven Tower garrisoned units now fire from correct point
- Mirror of Galadriel health set to 1000
- Thranduil arrow damage decreased from 200 to 100
- Thranduil now de-stealths when firing on open terrain. If he is near trees, he remains stealthed while firing.
- Using Thranduil's Dead Eye ability and giving attack order immediately after will no longer cancel Dead Eye and reset the timer
- Legolas arrow damage decreased from 200 to 150
- Mithlond Sentry pike attack delay reduced from 3 seconds to 2 seconds
- Bombardment ship now has a "Stop Bombardment" button
- Hotkey to build Haldir is now "I"
- Silverthorne Arrow upgrade damage changed (+50% pierce damage, -50% magic damage)

Goblins
-----------
- Spider Rider arrow damaged reduced from 100 to 50
- Shelob damage from magic increased from 25% to 100%
- Shelob damage from pikes increased from 25% to 125%
- Shelob now glows when affected by poison
- Shelob's Poisoned Stinger and Instill Terror can now be set to auto-cast simultaneously
- Spiderling damage against structures reduced by 50%
- Spiderling Venom Sack upgrade cost reduced from 1000 to 200
- Goblin Fighter poison changed (was 20/second for 5 seconds, now is 4/second for 30 seconds)
- Goblin Tower health reduced to 1500; build time increased to 60 seconds
- Fire Drake now has an attack run
- Goblin Fortress Giant upgrade now has bombard ability
- Drogoth now damages structures on every pass
- Fixed bug where garrisoned Goblin Sentry Tower would ignore player command to attack a new target

Isengard
------------
- Isengard Tower health increased to 3000; build time set to 60 seconds
- Berserkers can no longer be buffed
- Sharku can no longer garrison towers
- Ballista minimum range increased from 40 to 100

Men of the West
----------------------
- Theoden's Glorious Charge and King's Favor abilities swapped in level (KF now 4 and GC now 6)
- Theoden's Glorious Charge reload increased from 120 seconds to 240 seconds
- MOTW Tower health increased to 3000; build time set to 60 seconds
- Fixed a bug with Faramir incorrectly switching between sword and bow
- If Gollum is found using the Ivory Tower upgrade, pressing spacebar will jump to his location
- Hotkey to build Boromir is now "I"
- Non-upgraded Trebuchet no longer does double damage versus units

Mordor
----------
- Haradrim Palace build cost reduced from 500 to 300
- Haradrim Archer damage increased from 38 to 64
- Easterling build cost reduced from 400 to 300
- Easterling build time reduced from 45 to 25
- Easterling pike attack delay reduced from 3 seconds to 2 seconds
- Mordor Tower health increased to 3000; build time set to 60 seconds
- The Bloodthirst ability now gives orcs full experience points
- Players can no longer counter Mouth of Sauron's Dissent ability by ordering their units to attack another target
- Units under the effect of the Mouth of Sauron's Dissent ability can now be ordered to attack their own resource structures
- Orc Laborer now affected by Nazgul Screech
- Orc Laborer now receives Leadership Buff
- Orc Warriors will now garrison Siege Tower
- Black Riders will no longer use Morgul Blade against already dead units
- Fell Beasts now damage structures on every pass

terça-feira, 20 de fevereiro de 2007

Toureiro que levou por trás




commment:
OUCH

Enya - Return To Innocence (lyrics)

Return To Innocence
Enya



Love - Devotion
Feeling - Emotion

Don´t be afraid to be weak
Don´t be too proud to be strong
Just look into your heart my friend
That will be the return to yourself
The return to innocence

If you want, then start to laugh
If you must, then start to cry
Be yourself don´t hide
Just believe in destiny

Don´t care what people say
Just follow your own way
Don´t give up and use the chance
To return to innocence

That´s not the beginning of the end
That´s the return to yourself
The return to innocence

That's the return to inoocence

10 dicas fundamentais - Para apreciar ainda mais de Lisboa e de Portugal (por brasileiros)

Para começar – 10 dicas fundamentais
Posted on Fev 20, 2007 at 10:18 by Arnaldo | 1 Comment | Email | Print

Para apreciar ainda mais de Lisboa e de Portugal



1- NÃO espere não ter referência alguma do Brasil só por estar na Europa.

(Você ficará impressionado com a presença do Brasil e sua cultura em Portugal. Das músicas à telenovelas, das gírias às referências constantes ao Brasil, das novelas e programas de TV ao abrasileiramento da lingua portuguesa)

2- NÃO imagine que a comida portuguesa é apenas bacalhau

(há mais de 100 receitas à base do peixe, mas NÃO é o único prato típico, tampouco a base da culinária portuguesa)

3- NÃO pense que será fácil entender o idioma e fazer-se entender

(nós falamos brasileiro e eles, português, o que é muito diferente.

Começando por Lisboa...Falamos a mesma língua?)

4- NÃO espere encontrar paisagens e arquitetura muito diferente

(evidentemente que há castelos e palácios, mas no mais é tudo muito parecido, especialmente com o Rio de Janeiro e Salvador. "Uma familiaridade especial entre o Rio de Janeiro e Lisboa" )

5- NÃO imagine que Cabral é famoso por lá

(Pero Vaz de Caminha e Vasco da Gama valem muito mais que Cabral )

6- NÃO imagine o português como o estereótio tipo “lápis na orelha” ou garrafeiro

(não imagine encontrar o português estereotipado que conhecemos no Brasil, dono de boteco, garrafeiro e lápis na orelha com calça risca de giz )

7- NÃO pense que não encontrará nada do Brasil

(das novelas à programação da TV Globo, das gírias aos cantores, dos artistas de TV e Teatro ao Rock in Rio, Portugal está pleno de Brasil )

8- NÃO pense que só ouvirá Fado no rádio

(a programação é internacional, nacional popular, brasileira e só se ouve Fado em Casas de Fado )

9- NÃO pense que não vale a pena ir apenas para Portugal numa viagem

(em vez de esticar a outros países, ou mesmo até à vizinha Espanha, explore bem Portugal, de ponta a ponta, em duas semanas. É tudo perto. E quando retornar, diga que “conheceu” Portugal, não apenas que “esteve” lá. )

10- NÃO pense que entenderá as placas e nomes de ruas, estradas, cidades e lugares

(Nomes como Carrazeda de Ansiães, Grelos (brotos de couve ), Manique do Intendente, Lamas do Chelão, Caldas de Manteigas, lugares como cabeçudo, Orelhudo e Mal-lavado, Cabaços, “aderente” (sistema de cobrança automática de pedágio), “Berma” (acostamento), “ Portagem” (pedágio), entre outros) .

segunda-feira, 19 de fevereiro de 2007

Novo imposto de circulação obriga a pagar mínimo de 75 euros

Em 2008
Novo imposto de circulação obriga a pagar mínimo de 75 euros
[ 2007/02/19 | 07:57 ] Editorial
Selo do Carro

Automóvel: em cada dez euros de receita dois vão para o Fisco
Só 907 mil compraram selo do carro na Internet
Stands cobram margens brutas de 20 a 40% na venda de carros
Nova plataforma de compra e venda de usados entre particulares
Bruxelas quer reduzir emissões de CO2 nos automóveis
Crise já obriga pequenas oficinas automóveis a fechar
Os carros comprados a partir de 1 de Julho deste ano passam a pagar, em 2008, um mínimo de 75 euros e um máximo de 550 euros de Imposto Único de Circulação (IUC), que substituirá o actual «selo do carro».
De acordo com o «Diário de Notícias», os actuais proprietários e os veículos comprados até 30 de Junho deste ano continuam a liquidar o selo do carro de acordo com o actual formato. Para este ano está previsto um aumento de 2,1 por cento, de acordo com o Orçamento do Estado para 2007.

Para os veículos a comprar a partir de Julho deste ano deixa de existir a diferenciação entre gasolina e gasóleo para efeitos de pagamento do imposto.

O novo imposto de circulação, que o Executivo apresentará brevemente ao Parlamento para aprovação, prevê a taxação da cilindrada e das emissões de dióxido de carbono, Co2.

Assim, um carro com uma cilindrada até 1.250 centímetros cúbicos e com uma emissão de Co2 de 120 gramas por quilómetro, pagará 75 euros de Imposto Único de Circulação em 2008. Parte deste imposto, o correspondente à cilindrada, será receita municipal, já que este imposto substitui o actual Imposto Municipal sobre Veículos, o vulgar selo do carro.

O imposto de circulação complementa outro imposto «pago à cabeça», o Imposto sobre os Veículos (ISV) que substitui em Julho o actual Imposto Automóvel (IA). De acordo com o Governo, no primeiro ano de vigência, o imposto baixa em média 10%, mantendo-se no entanto a carga fiscal automóvel, já que , em contrapartida, aumenta o IUC, pago anualmente, durante a vida útil do automóvel.

Videos de lord of the rings: battle for middle eart 2

http://www.ea.com/official/lordoftherings/bfme2/us/video.jsp

Redes Hamachi para: Battlefield 2142, The lord of the rings: battle formidle earth 2 version 1.06., COMAND AND CONQUER: ZERO HOUR e WAR CRAFT 3: TFT

==============Battlefield 2142=====================


Battlefield 2142
+Do not patch the game if you play on these servers+
+Nao coloquem nenhum patch no jogo para jugarem nestas redes+

-All servers are cleaned every day or so-If one server is full just join the next one down-
-todos as redes sao limpas todos os dias ou quase-se uma rede estiver cheia entrem na proxima-

Password = bf

user/rede/network

bf2142 FM1
bf2142 FM2
bf2142 FM3
bf2142 FM4
bf2142 FM5
bf2142 FM6
bf2142 FM7
bf2142 FM8
bf2142 FM9
bf2142 FM10
bf2142 FM11
bf2142 FM12
bf2142 FM13
bf2142 FM14
bf2142 FM15
bf2142 FM16
bf2142 FM17
bf2142 FM18
bf2142 FM19
bf2142 FM20

----------------
Batlefield 2142
em Israel


name: israel1
PASS: join

======The lord of the rings: battle formidle earth 2 version 1.06.========

The lord of the rings: battle for midle earth

All nights we are playing Battle for the middle earth 2 version 1.06. For any one who wants to join, here are the networks;
Note= When you join and see the people over there you get suprised!!!

Every week networks updated. During the week people who are not seen will be evicted. You should check if you ara a member or not of networks regularly.


user/rede/network:

oyna1
oyna7
oyna8
devag2
devağ
oyna17


jackal84

all passwords= 123


==============COMAND AND CONQUER: ZERO HOUR=====================
COMAND AND CONQUER: ZERO HOUR


user/rede/network: HG - Zero Hour
password: hamachi-games



=============WAR CRAFT 3: The frozen throne==================


WAR CRAFT 3: The frozen throne

user/rede/network:legolas`14
pass:123
user/rede/network:legolas`15
pass:123

domingo, 18 de fevereiro de 2007

Mike Zambidis (Greece)



atenção ao minuto 3:20 um knockout fantastico =)

More Girls Take Part in High School Wrestling

Jessica Bennett, 15, who competes at 103 pounds for the Montville High School Indians, waiting on the bench to take the mat at a recent match.
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By TAMAR LEWIN
Published: February 17, 2007

UNCASVILLE, Conn. — The takedown came after all of 12 seconds.
Multimedia
Video
Hitting the Mat
Enlarge This Image

C. M. Glover for The New York Times

Jessica Bennett, center rear, listening to prematch instructions.

Jessica Bennett, Montville High School’s 103-pound wrestler, waited until Rich Wood went down to try to grab her leg, then launched herself onto his back, and got him down to his knees. After a brief stalemate later in the match, Jessica, 15, lifted him off the ground and took him back to the mat, for more points.

At that, several of Rich’s teammates, from St. Bernard High School here, looked down at their feet. There is still some pain in watching a teammate being beaten by a girl — even a girl like Jessica, who has won 23 of her 35 matches this season.

Wrestling may be the ultimate contact sport, and it can be a startling sight, teenage boys grabbing girls’ thighs, girls straddling boys, boys riding girls’ backs and trying to flip them onto their backs. For the most part, girls who want to wrestle — and they are slowly moving into the mainstream — must practice with, and compete against, boys.

Nationwide, about 5,000 high school girls wrestled last year, according to the National Federation of State High School Associations, nearly five times as many as a decade earlier. Those numbers are no doubt low, since many states failed to report girls’ wrestling participation, but whatever the full count, it is dwarfed by the quarter-million boys who wrestle.

Now that women’s wrestling is an Olympic sport, and, on some campuses, a college sport, girls’ wrestling is poised to take off. There is a Catch-22: Without many girls, there can’t be girls’ teams, and without girls’ teams, wrestling can’t attract all that many girls. The legal status of coed wrestling is not entirely clear, but in a few scattered cases, courts have ruled that if there is no girls’ team for them, they should be able to join boys’ teams.

In Texas and Hawaii, and in some California schools, girls have their own teams. Girls’ invitational tournaments, where girls compete individually, are becoming more common. Just this month, for the first time, the New York Mayor’s Cup competition had a girls’ division, albeit with only nine participants.

“It would be nice if there were girls’ teams,” said Eleanor Lewis, a sophomore at Horace Mann, a private school in New York City, who wrestled two boys on the first day of the Mayor’s Cup and two girls the second. “When you wrestle a girl, you’re more equally matched, and feel like you’re respected,” she said.

Roger Shaw, women’s director for USA Wrestling Connecticut, said the spread of girls’ teams would help wrestling’s popularity.

“I believe we’ll go on at the low level we’re at if women don’t get their own teams,” Mr. Shaw said.

While he is all for girls wrestling — his daughter, Stefenie, started wrestling at 8 and now, at 20, is an Olympic hopeful — Mr. Shaw said that for boys, coed wrestling can be disconcerting. “A boy who goes out on the mat against a girl doesn’t win,” he said. “If he beats her, he was supposed to, and if he doesn’t, he’s dead meat.”
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On the other side, mothers of girl wrestlers say they worry about the cauliflower ears, broken noses and concussions. One thing that coaches, parents and wrestlers — both boys and girls — agree on is that sex is the last thing on wrestlers’ minds as they pull and push and turn their partners, same sex or opposite.

“They’re so pumped up with adrenaline when they’re out there on the mat, they’re not thinking of anything but wrestling and winning,” said Gary Wilcox, Jessica Bennett’s coach.

Occasionally, boys choose to forfeit rather than wrestle a girl, as happened at a Dobbs Ferry High School exhibition match this season, leaving Sophia Veiras, a sophomore, with no one to fight.

“It’s always a little intimidating for the boys at first,” said Jamie Block, the coach at the school, in Westchester. “They’re raised not to do this to a girl. And the thing about Sophia is, she’s very good. If you don’t really fight, she’ll pummel you. The girls who come out for wrestling now, they go to wrestling camps in the summer. They’re serious.”

Girls’ wrestling is not easy. The conditioning is grueling and intense, more so than for other sports. Since boys their age are usually stronger, only a few girls ever make varsity, let alone get to a state championship. And there is often parental resistance.
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C. M. Glover for The New York Times

Ms. Bennett winning her match for Montville High.
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Hitting the Mat

“I told her, it’s all boys, you’re going to get hurt,” said Roseanna Di Benedetto, whose daughter, Lucy, a tiny 15-year-old at Francis Lewis High School in Queens, is determined to wrestle. “But Lucy’s always loved a challenge.”

Even her coach, Josue Herrera, has his doubts about coed wrestling. “I think it’s better if it’s girl and girl,” he said. “If boys and girls wrestle together, it’s physically harder for the girl, but mentally harder for the boy.”

Lucy’s school is still considering how to treat her. She has been training with the boys. Every afternoon, she flops to the floor, does her pushups, runs alongside them and goes through the neck stretches, crab walks and army crawls. Still, she has not been allowed to wrestle with the boys.

Her school’s athletic director, Arnie Rosenbaum, will not let her do that unless she can pass a state test: among other things, she must run a mile and a half in 11 minutes and do a 7-foot standing long jump, which may not be possible for this 4-foot-11 ninth grader.

Mr. Rosenbaum said he was following state guidelines intended to ensure that girls who join boys’ teams are solid athletes. “It’s not up to me,” he said. “I’m just following the guidelines.” Other officials say Mr. Rosenbaum is going beyond state requirements.

According to the State Education Department, the guidelines for mixed competition require schools to consider the girl’s medical history and physical abilities but do not require that they pass the test, which is intended for younger athletes who want to compete alongside older ones.

At other schools in New York where girls wrestle with boys, coaches say there has not been a problem.

“We’ve had at least one girl on our team since we started the program four years ago,” said Scott DeBellis, at Herbert H. Lehman High School in the Bronx, which has two girls wrestling this year.

Another girl, he said, dropped away because her mother wanted her out.

Even the mother of Jessica Bennett, the Montville High wrestler, had her doubts.

“When she was little, I told Jess that it’s a little bit of a man’s world, but you should never let anyone say you can’t do something because you’re a girl,” Kim Bennett said. “When she wanted to wrestle, I was very skeptical. But she reminded me of what I’d said, and told me that the first time she was hearing she shouldn’t do something because she’s a girl, she was getting it from me. And she was right.”

Her coach, Mr. Wilcox, a former marine, also wondered how the boys would behave when Jessica first appeared at practice. “I told them, if anybody does or says anything, they’ll pay me,” he said. “So there was fear.”

But Jessica and her teammates say coed wrestling seems perfectly natural. In fact, Jessica says, the boys who have known her since she followed her brother into a local youth wrestling program in fourth grade “kind of watch out for me.”

Nick Perry, a senior who often wrestles Jessica at practice, said he never thought about her being a girl.

“I grew up wrestling with Jessica, in the youth program, so it’s just how it is,” he said. “She’s good. She’s the one on the team who makes the most kids cry.”

Mr. Wilcox said Jessica was equally serious academically and athletically: she is at the top of her class and places among the fastest runners in the state. Last summer, she went to wrestling camp, where she was the only girl.

Jessica, a soft-spoken girl who braids and pins up her hair before each match, says wrestling has helped build her confidence, challenging both her body and her mind.

With the hairnet, the dark T-shirt under her singlet, and the headgear over her ears, there is something oddly demure about Jessica, even as she is on all fours with a boy riding her back. The onlookers yell, “Lock in that leg” and “Keep pushing,” and her mother yells, “Come on, Jess, upsy-daisy.”

When she gets on top, turns him and nearly pins him, the crowd explodes, stomping the bleachers. Her team cheers wildly. His team goes silent.

Old McDonald Gave a Tour of His Farm


Dee Harley gives 2 to 10 tours a week at her farm in Pescadero, Calif.
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By MATT VILLANO
Published: February 17, 2007

PESCADERO, Calif. — It was no ordinary business outing for Erik Franks. Under a steely sky one recent Saturday morning, Mr. Franks and some colleagues from a nearby law firm visited Harley Farms, a nine-acre dairy farm here, for a tour and a crash course in the art of making goat cheese.
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The Age of Agri-Tourism
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Cheese is Harley Farms’ passion but tourism helps pay the bills.

First, though, came an up-close-and-personal introduction to 200 American Alpine goats. The day began in a pasture, where a dozen goats surrounded Mr. Franks and began chewing on his clothes. Later, in the paddock, he held a four-day-old baby. In the milking parlor, he used his thumb and forefinger to pinch a goat’s udder and squeeze fresh milk into a bowl.

“The whole milking thing was a lot easier than I expected,” said Mr. Franks, 25, who works at Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati in Palo Alto, a one-hour drive away. “Definitely not the way I spend an average Saturday.” The outing was arranged by the firm as part of a team-building exercise.

Mr. Franks’s introduction to chèvre is part of an effort that has farmers reaching out to urbanites and suburbanites in new and creative ways. With farm income for many family farmers still weak, many of them have been forced to diversify their operations with nonagricultural activities just to survive.

Farmers describe these activities — on-site markets, seasonal festivals and occasional overnight guests — as agri-tourism. Most of these endeavors begin in the spring, making an already busy time of year even more hectic. The benefits can be undeniable.

At Harley Farms, for example, the owner, Dee Harley, celebrates the arrival of baby goats by welcoming school groups, corporate teams and independent visitors into her world for a few hours upon request. All told, Ms. Harley gives 2 to 10 tours a week, year-round. The tours cost $10 a person and comprise at least 25 percent of annual revenue.

“We couldn’t survive on tours alone, but the money we make from them certainly allows us to stay small and dedicated to quality artisan cheese-making,” she said. “It’s become a huge and irreplaceable part of our income.”

Agri-tourism is nothing new, of course. For years, American farmers have set up mazes of maize to entertain children as well as “u-pick” apple, blueberry and strawberry operations. These operations still exist.

What’s changed, however, is the economic climate that surrounds them. A recent study by the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture at Iowa State University indicates that over the last 30 years, farm income has remained flat while farm expenses have more than tripled.

To balance their ledgers, many farmers have become dependent upon government subsidies and income from second jobs known as “off-farm activities.” Statistics from the Economic Research Service, an agency within of the Department of Agriculture, provide a snapshot of this situation. In 1977, family farmers had an average household income of $14,867 — $10,636 of that from off-farm activities. By 2005, the gap between profit sources had widened, with the average income at $81,420 and off-farm income equaling $66,782.

For many farmers today, agri-tourism is a way to reduce the need for a second job. While the Department of Agriculture does not keep statistics on how many of the country’s 2.1 million farms engage in this activity, Jane Eckert, president of Eckert AgriMarketing, a consulting firm in St. Louis, estimated the number at 4 or 5 percent.

Ms. Eckert said this number was up considerably from a 2 percent estimate she had made in the 1990s, and cited a 2000 study from Cornell University that reported farmers who turned to agri-tourism could be as much as 40 percent more profitable than those who did not.

“We know that people who are involved in agri-tourism have greater on-farm income to the extent that they’re relying less on off-farm income,” she said. “For many, this extra income can make a huge difference in the quality of life.”

This difference is evident at the Picket Fence Creamery, a grass-based cow dairy in Woodward, Iowa, about 30 miles northwest of Des Moines. The owners, Jeff and Jill Burkhart, sell milk, cheese, butter, ice cream and beef from a tiny store on the farm, and supplement profits with tours.

These tours cost $5 a person and are similar to the ones at Harley Farms. Ms. Burkhart introduces visitors to some of the animals, and then leads them through the milking parlor and bottling plant. Out in the pasture, she teaches them about the benefits of avoiding artificial hormones. The two-hour experience concludes in the store, where each guest receives a glass of milk and a dish of ice cream.

Jailed 2 Years, Iraqi Tells of Abuse by Americans

DAMASCUS, Syria — In the early hours of Jan. 6, Laith al-Ani stood in a jail near the Baghdad airport waiting to be released by the American military after two years and three months in captivity.
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Before Mr. Ani was released, American guards asked him to select a sentence to describe his treatment by his captors.

He struggled to quell his hope. Other prisoners had gotten as far as the gate only to be brought back inside, he said, and he feared that would happen to him as punishment for letting his family discuss his case with a reporter.

But as the morning light grew, the American guards moved Mr. Ani, a 31-year-old father of two young children, methodically toward freedom. They swapped his yellow prison suit for street clothes, he said. They snipped off his white plastic identification bracelet. They scanned his irises into their database.

Then, shortly before 9 a.m., Mr. Ani said, he was brought to a table for one last step. He was handed a form and asked to place a check mark next to the sentence that best described how he had been treated:

“I didn’t go through any abuse during detention,” read the first option, in Arabic.

“I have gone through abuse during detention,” read the second.

In the room, he said, stood three American guards carrying the type of electric stun devices that Mr. Ani and other detainees said had been used on them for infractions as minor as speaking out of turn.

“Even the translator told me to sign the first answer,” said Mr. Ani, who gave a copy of his form to The New York Times. “I asked him what happens if I sign the second one, and he raised his hands,” as if to say, Who knows?

“I thought if I don’t sign the first one I am not going to get out of this place.”

Shoving the memories of his detention aside, he checked the first box and minutes later was running through a cold rain to his waiting parents. “My heart was beating so hard,” he said. “You can’t believe how I cried.”

His mother, Intisar al-Ani, raised her arms in the air, palms up, praising God. “It was like my soul going out, from my happiness,” she recalled. “I hugged him hard, afraid the Americans would take him away again.”

Just three weeks earlier, his last letter home — with its poetic yearnings and a sketch of a caged pink heart — appeared in The Times in one of a series of articles on Iraq’s troubled detention and justice system.

After his release from the American-run jail, Camp Bucca, Mr. Ani and other former detainees described the sprawling complex of barracks in the southern desert near Kuwait as a bleak place where guards casually used their stun guns and exposed prisoners to long periods of extreme heat and cold; where prisoners fought among themselves and extremist elements tried to radicalize others; and where detainees often responded to the harsh conditions with hunger strikes and, at times, violent protests.

Through it all, Mr. Ani was never actually charged with a crime; he said he was questioned only once during his more than two years at the camp.

American detention officials acknowledged that guards used electric devices called Tasers to control detainees, but they said they did so rarely and only when the guards were physically threatened. The officials said that detainees had several ways to report abuse without repercussions, and that all claims were investigated.

Officials declined to give specific details about why they had detained Mr. Ani or why they had freed him.

“He was released because the board that reviewed his case didn’t believe he any longer posed a threat,” said First Lt. Lea Ann Fracasso, a spokeswoman for detention operations, in a written answer to questions. “He was originally detained as a security threat. I don’t have anything more.”

The Detention System

The American detention camps in Iraq now hold 15,500 prisoners, more than at any time since the war began. The camps are filled with people like Mr. Ani who are being held without charge and without access to tribunals where their cases are reviewed, the Times examination published last December found.

Mr. Ani, a women’s clothing merchant, said he was detained in 2004 after American soldiers who were searching for weapons in his six-family apartment building found an Iraqi military uniform in the basement. His joy upon being released in January was short-lived. Days later, he said, a Shiite militia ransacked his home in Baghdad, looking to kill him. He hid, going from house to house, until he could move his family out of Iraq.

Now he is among the estimated 1.5 million Iraqis who have taken refuge in neighboring Syria and Jordan, where sectarian rifts are springing up.

Centenas de polacos protestam contra passagem de auto-estrada em reserva natural

Centenas de polacos protestam contra passagem de auto-estrada em reserva natural
18.02.2007 - 20h01 Reuters



Centenas de polacos manifestaram-se hoje contra a passagem de uma auto-estrada na reserve natural do Vale de Rospuda. A Comissão Europeia já avisou que o projecto de construção vai pôr em risco o compromisso da Polónia com a protecção da natureza.

Os críticos do projecto dizem que este ameaça o Vale de Rospuda, zona de turfeiras que alberga espécies de plantas e de animais raras no país.

O troço em questão faz parte de uma auto-estrada internacional que liga Varsóvia a Helsínquia, através dos países bálticos. A auto-estrada incluirá uma passagem aérea de 500 metros por cima do vale.

“Compreendemos que é necessária uma auto-estrada e, por isso, já propusemos vias alternativas para evitar danificar o ambiente”, disse o ecologista Jan Jakiel.

Dezenas de ecologistas foram para o local com tendas e ameaçaram acorrentar-se às árvores se a construção avançar, informou a estação de televisão TVN24.

O presidente da Comissão Europeia, José Manuel Durão Barroso, disse recentemente às autoridades polacas que a Comissão vê este projecto como uma violação à Rede Natura 2000 da Polónia.

Irão impede navio da Greenpeace de entrar nas suas águas territoriais

Irão impede navio da Greenpeace de entrar nas suas águas territoriais
18.02.2007 - 20h23 AFP



As autoridades de Teerão impediram o “Rainbow Warrior”, da Greenpeace, de entrar nas suas águas territoriais. A organização ecologista preparava-se para dar, a bordo do navio, uma conferência de imprensa sobre energia nuclear, afirmou hoje a organização.

"Estava combinado darmos uma conferência de imprensa a bordo do ‘Rainbow Warrior’ em Bouchehr (a cidade a Sul do Irão onde se situa uma central nuclear) para mostrar os resultados de investigações sobre as possibilidades oferecidas ao Irão para satisfazer as suas necessidades energéticas, sem recorrer ao nuclear”, escreveu a Greenpeace em comunicado.

“Mas, no último minuto, e quando o navio se preparava para entrar nas águas territoriais iranianas, as autoridades recusaram dar-nos a autorização final para entrar”, acrescenta a Greenpeace, lamentando esta decisão.

A organização, presente em 40 países, garante que “vai encontrar outros meios para fazer passar a mensagem e continuar a nossa actuação pela paz na região”.

No mesmo comunicado, a organização diz ter realizado uma “acção pacífica em frente ao Parlamento israelita para chamar a atenção dos deputados para os perigos nucleares no Médio Oriente”.

sábado, 17 de fevereiro de 2007

ajuda de inscrições no fenix IST

portanto:

login no fenix;

entrar na pagina do aluno;

entrar em turmas;

escolher a opção guardar turmas e turnos;

agora abre um menu com um horário;
na lateral esquerda aparece todas as turmas disponiveis para o vosso curso;
escolhem a turma e aparecerá na pagina central um horário correspondente a essa turma selecionada;

em baixo aparecerá o vosso horário;

irão clicar no "+" para adicionar as disciplinas ao vosso horário;
se se engarem clicquem no "-" no vosso horario para a retirar;

"ATENÇÂO QUE POR VEZES PODE O FENIX MUDAR DE TURMA E ACABAM POR MISTURAR NO VOSSO HORARIO TURMAS DIFERENTES O QUE PODE CAUSAR UM POUCO DE TRANSTORNO"

agora clicam em concluir;

aparecera uma tabela com todas as cadeira sque se inscreveram e as que se esqueceram.

confirmem em disciplinas inscritas se ficaram todas as que necessitam;

clicar em terminar:

e GOOG LUCK terminaram a inscrição .....



enjoy the live get study do not get nerd :D

************************************

Tiwanaku, a pice of the lost civilizacion of atlantida ??? some people (cientits) believe, others didn't

Tiwanaku
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture1
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party Bolivia
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, iv
Identification no. 567
Region2 Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription History
Formal Inscription: 2000
24th WH Committee Session
WH link: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567

1 As officially inscribed on the World Heritage List
2 As classified officially by UNESCO


Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia. Tiwanaku is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourishing as the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power for approximately five hundred years. The ruins of the ancient city state are near the south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca, about 72 km (44 miles) west of La Paz, Bolivia - 16°33′17″S, 68°40′24″W.

Some have hypothesized that Tiwanaku's modern name is related to the Aymara term "taypikala", meaning "stone in the center". However, the name by which Tiwanaku was known to its inhabitants has been lost, as the people of Tiwanaku had no written language.Contents [hide]
1 Cultural development
2 Architecture and art
3 Religion
4 Archaeology
5 Further notes
6 References
7 Trivia
8 See also
9 External links


[edit]
Cultural development

Area of the Middle Horizon

The site of Tiwanaku was founded in approximately 200 BC as a small agriculturally-based village, with a number of similar neighbors. The high altitude Titicaca Basin required the development of a distinctive farming technique known as "raised-field" agriculture, which are only found in today's South America as experimental, government-funded projects. In antiquity, they comprised a small but significant percentage of the agriculture in the region, along with irrigated fields, pasture, terraced fields and cocha (small lake) farming. Artificially raised planting mounds (known as "suka kollus" in the local Aymara language) are separated by canals filled with water. The canals supply moisture for growing crops, but they also absorb heat from solar radiation during the day. This heat is gradually emitted during the bitterly cold nights, providing thermal insulation. Over time, the canals also were used to farm edible fish, and the resulting canal sludge was dredged for fertilizer. The use of various agricultural techniques allowed local communities to grow and population to increase.

Though labor-intensive, suka kollus produce impressive yields. While traditional agriculture in the region typically yields 2.4 metric tons of potatoes per hectare, and modern agriculture (with artificial fertilizers and pesticides) yields about 14.5 metric tons per hectare, suka kollu agriculture yields an average of 21 tons per hectare.

More importantly, the experimental fields recreated in the 1980s by Kolata and Rivera (see below) suffered only a 10% decrease in production following a 1988 freeze that killed 70-90% of the rest of the region's production. This kind of protection against killing frosts in an agrarian civilization is an invaluable asset. For these reasons, the importance of suka kollus cannot be overstated.

The community grew to urban proportions between AD 600 and AD 800, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes. According to early estimates, at its maximum extent, the city covered approximately 5.0 square kilometers, and had as many as 40,000 inhabitants. However, satellite imaging was used recently to map the extent of fossilized suka kollus across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people.

More narrowly, the proposed population range is between 570,000 and 1,111,500. This is based on 1) 19,000 hectares of suka kollus discovered so far; 2) the Bolivian and Peruvian experimental staple tuber production rates of 21 and 10.65 metric tons per hectare respectively; 3) 533kg of tuber consumption per person per year; and 4) assumptions of 75% utilization and double cropping.

Tiwanaku's unique art style is found in vast areas covering modern highland Bolivia, Peru and Argentina. It is difficult to tell, however, whether these areas were part of an empire in the political sense, under cultural and commercial influence, or independent trading partners.

Tiwanaku collapsed around AD 1000, possibly due to environmental reasons, from an invasion of new people from the south, a loss of faith in the Tiwankau religion, or a combination of all three. The area around Tiwanaku was not abandoned, but the city fell into decay and its characteristic art style vanished.

[edit]
Architecture and art

Closeup of carved stone tenon-head embedded in wall of Tiwanaku's Semi-subterranean Temple

Fine detail of stonework in newly-uncovered wall of Akapana pyramid

Tiwanaku architecture is characterized by large stones, weighing up to 100 tons, with stone cutting, squaring, dressing, and notching exceeding even the Inca in artisanship. The stones are set without mortar, so closely together that a razor blade cannot penetrate the seams. The stones are cut irregularly (unlike Egyptian square stone blocks), with each stone matched uniquely to its neighbors, possibly to resist lateral motion due to regional earthquakes. Supporting this notion is the use of elaborate "double-T" copper clamps to hold stones together in the critical drainage and irrigation tunnels.

The Tiwanaku art style is distinctive, and, together with the related Huari style, defines the Middle Horizon of Andean prehistory. Both of these styles seem to have been heavily influenced by that of the earlier Pukara culture in the northern Titicaca Basin.

[edit]
Religion

The name of the religion of Tiwanaku is unknown because they had no written language.

Their myths have been passed down to the Incas and the Spanish who in turn took that part of South America. They worshipped many gods, and one of the most important gods was Viracocha, the god of action, shaper of many worlds, and destroyer of many worlds. He created people, with two servants, on a great piece of rock. Then he drew sections on the rock and sent his servants to name the tribes in those areas. In Tiwanaku he created the people out of rock and brought life to them through the earth.

Viracocha is carved in the Gateway to the Sun, to overlook his people and lands.

[edit]
Archaeology

Ponce stela in the sunken courtyard of the Tiwanaku's Kalasasaya temple

Walls around the temple Kalasasaya

"Gateway of the Sun", Tiwanaku, drawn by Ephraim Squier in 1877. The scale is exaggerated in this drawing.

Much of the architecture of the site is in a poor state of preservation, having been subjected to looting and amateur excavations attempting to locate valuables since shortly after Tiwanaku's fall. This destruction continued during the Spanish conquest and colonial period, and during 19th century and the early 20th century, and has included quarrying stone for building and railroad construction and target practice by military personnel.

Detailed study of Tiwanaku began on a small scale in the mid-nineteenth century. In the 1860s, Ephraim George Squier visited the ruins and later published maps and sketches completed during his visit. German geologist Alphons Stübel spent nine days in Tiwanaku in 1876, creating a map of the site based on careful measurements. He also made sketches and created paper impressions of carvings and other architectural features. A book containing major photographic documentation was published in 1892 by engineer B. von Grumbkow. With commentary by archaeologist Max Uhle, this was the first in-depth scientific account of the ruins.

In the 1960s, an attempt was made at restoring the site, but by very uninformed parties. The walls pictured to the right, of the Kalasasaya, are almost all reconstruction. The original stones making up the Kalasasaya would have resembled a more "Stonehenge" like style, spaced evenly apart and standing straight up. Unfortunately, the parties that made the reconstructions decided to make the Kalasasaya be enclosed by a wall that they themselves built. Ironically enough, the reconstruction itself is actually much poorer quality stoneworking than the people of Tiwanaku were capable of. It should also be noted that the Gateway of the Sun, that now stands in the Kalasasaya, is not in its original location, having been moved sometime earlier from its original location, which is unknown.

Modern, academically-sound archaeological excavations were performed from 1978 through the 1990s by University of Chicago anthropologist Alan Kolata and his Bolivian counterpart, Oswaldo Rivera. Among their contributions are the rediscovery of the suka kollus, accurate dating of the civilization's growth and influence, and evidence for a draught-based collapse.

Today Tiwanaku is a UNESCO world heritage site, and is administered by the Bolivian government.

Robotic exploration of a newly-discovered tunnel in the Akapana pyramid, June 13, 2006

Recently, the Department of Archaeology of Bolivia (DINAR) has been conducting excavations on the Akapana pyramid. The PAPA project, or Proyecto Arqueologico Pumapunku-Akapana (Pumapunku-Akapana Archaeological Project), run by the University of Pennsylvania, has been excavating in the area surrounding the pyramid for the past few years, and also conducting Ground Penetrating Radar surveys of the area. An archaeological field school, offered every summer through Harvard's Summer School Program, offers archaeology students the chance to learn to excavate in the residential area outside the monumental core. The program directors are Dr. Gary Urton of Harvard, expert in quipu, and Dr. Alexei Vranich of the University of Pennsylvania.

[edit]
Further notes

On January 21, 2006 newly-elect Bolivian president Evo Morales attended an indigenous spiritual ceremony at Tiwanaku where he was crowned as Apu Mallku of the indigenous people of the Altiplano and received gifts from many groups of indigenous peoples from various parts of Latin America and the world.

During the fad for theories suggesting extraterrestrial visits in prehistoric times, pseudoscientists advancing these ideas were fond of ascribing an immense age to Tiwanaku, on the order of 12000 years.

A documentary titled "Atlantis in the Andes" aired recently on Discovery Civilisation, in which cartographer Jim Allen claims Tiwanaku is one of the "ten kingdoms of Atlantis."

[edit]
References
Posnansky, Arthur. Tiahuanacu: The Cradle of American Man (4 vol., 1945–58). J. J. Augustin, New York, 1945.
Kolata, Alan L. The Tiwanaku: Portrait of and Andean Civilization. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, 1993.
Kolata, Alan L. Valley of the Spirits: A Journey into the Lost Realm of the Aymara. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, 1996.

[edit]
Trivia
Tiwanaku was one of the locations in Tomb Raider Legend where Lara Croft searched for a mysterious dais.

[edit]
See also
H.S. Bellamy, who wrote several speculative science books about the ancient city and its people.

[edit]
External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tiwanaku
Interactive dig (Archeology Magazine of the Archaeological Institute of America)
Panoramica de Kalasasaya'
Research done at the University of Pennsylvania
UNESCO description
Tiahuanaco on emuseum.mnsu.edu
Tiwanaku society by tiwanakuarcheo.net
Tiwanaku society (flash)
Tiahuanaco, City and Empire with links to other sites (broken link).
Google Maps
Daily Life at Tiwanaku
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